Beyond Freedom and Dignity - WikipediaHideki A. Ishisaka, Beyond Freedom and Dignity. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, By Isidor Chein. New York: Basic Books,
B. F. Skinner - "Beyond Freedom and Dignity" audiobook (1972)
Beyond Freedom and Dignity
It is intentionally provocative, as is much of the book itself, so that despite its wide readership it is difficult for the book to get the dispassionate appraisal that it deserves. To get a little perspective before plunging into a consideration of Skinner's message, here are a few assertions of my own about man's relation to the natural environment and to the environment of other men: 1. The circumstances and manner of man's life have changed in the past and may be expected to change in the future. These changes have come about, at least in part, through man's inventiveness, planfulness, knowledge, and technological innovations. The changes that take place are in accordance with scientific laws, to the extent that these are known, but are not predictable in detail from these laws. As Jacques Monod has put it, "it is enough for us that this actual object, unique and real, be compatible with the theory.
There are three B. The Skinner who invented these techniques belongs to an old school of psychology, founded by Pavlov, Thorndike and others at the end of the 19th century. The second B. Skinner is bolder. The controlled environment that Skinner the experi menter creates in the laboratory, Skinner the utopian declares should be a model for planning the whole society. Like many utopian writers, Skinner Two hopes to show his model society is not a wild idea by demonstrating that everyday reality is already much as he describes it, but that people are unaware of what they are doing. This utopian program raises a terri ble set of questions: Who makes de cisions about what behavior will be praised and what behavior discour aged?
Beyond Freedom and Dignity is a book by American psychologist B. Skinner argues that entrenched belief in free will and the moral autonomy of the individual which Skinner referred to as "dignity" hinders the prospect of using scientific methods to modify behavior for the purpose of building a happier and better-organized society. Beyond Freedom and Dignity may be summarized as an attempt to promote Skinner's philosophy of science, the technology of human behavior, his conception of determinism, and what Skinner calls "cultural engineering". In this chapter Skinner proposes that a technology of behavior is possible and that it can be used to help solve currently pressing human issues such as over-population and warfare. What is needed is a technology of human behavior. In this chapter Skinner offers a more precise definition of freedom , one that allows for his conception of determinism , and speaks to the conventional notion of freedom. Skinner argues against "autonomous man".
Beyond Freedom and Dignity: B F Skinner
In this profound and profoundly controversial work, a landmark of 20th-century thought originally published in , B. Skinner makes his definitive statement about humankind and society. Insisting that the problems of the world today can be solved only by dealing much more effectively with human behavior, Skinner argues that our traditional concepts of freedom and dignity must be sharply revised. They have played an important historical role in our struggle against many kinds of tyranny, he acknowledges, but they are now responsible for the futile defense of a presumed free and autonomous individual; they are perpetuating our use of punishment and blocking the development of more effective cultural practices. Basing his arguments on the massive results of the experimental analysis of behavior he pioneered, Skinner rejects traditional explanations of behavior in terms of states of mind, feelings, and other mental attributes in favor of explanations to be sought in the interaction between genetic endowment and personal history. He argues that instead of promoting freedom and dignity as personal attributes, we should direct our attention to the physical and social environments in which people live. It is the environment rather than humankind itself that must be changed if the traditional goals of the struggle for freedom and dignity are to be reached.
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