Vehicle Emission Standards
Diesel engines have high efficiency, high torque, and outstanding longevity. Not so favorable is excessive exhaust emission, especially regarding carbon soot particulates and NOx. Thus, measures are needed to meet ever-tightening emissions Mobile sources - Pollutant exhaust gases created by the combustion of fuel. Water and CO2 are not included in this category, but CO, NOx, and hydrocarbons are and are thus subject to legislative control. All three are emitted by gasoline engines, while diesel engines also emit particulates that are regulated. Stationary sources - The release of sulfur oxides and particulates from power stations that can be influenced by fuel composition. Local authorities control the sulfur content of heavy fuel oils used in such applications.
Australia has had road vehicle emission standards for new vehicles in place since the early s and these have been progressively tightened over the past 40 years. The current standards reflect Australia's commitment to harmonise with the vehicle standards developed by the United Nations wherever possible. The Australian Government's Ministerial Forum on Vehicle Emissions is currently undertaking a review to consider whether Australia should adopt the Euro 6 standards for light vehicles and Euro VI standards for heavy vehicles. Over the last 10 years in particular there have been improvements in a number of air quality indicators, and it is generally accepted that the increasing proportion of vehicles meeting tighter emission standards has played a major part in these air quality improvements. The tables listed below summarise the emission limits which apply for light and heavy vehicles and their timetable for adoption in the ADRs. The ADRs are performance standards which specify the maximum levels of emissions permitted under a specified test.
NCBI Bookshelf. Air Pollution, the Automobile, and Public Health. Concern about the automobile as a source of air pollution has been expressed periodically, but national concern was first evidenced in the s when California established the first new car emission standards. The scientific basis of this effort is the pioneering atmospheric chemistry research of A. This paper reviews our current knowledge of automotive emissions, including standards, control technology, fuel economy, fuels and additives, in-use emissions, measurement methods for unregulated pollutants, and models for predicting future automotive emissions.
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy. Diesel engines have high efficiency, durability, and reliability together with their low-operating cost. These important features make them the most preferred engines especially for heavy-duty vehicles. The interest in diesel engines has risen substantially day by day. In addition to the widespread use of these engines with many advantages, they play an important role in environmental pollution problems worldwide.