Hinduism | Origin, History, Beliefs, Gods, & Facts | rumahhijabaqila.comPregnant women rely heavily on informal information while making a decision about the mode of delivery they would rather have, either as normal vaginal delivery NVD or cesarean section CS. Through recognition of social attitudes towards different modes of delivery, societies can be directed towards a positive understanding of vaginal delivery, which can ultimately lead to maternal health promotion. Using a focused ethnographic approach, twelve pregnant women, 10 women with previous experience of childbirth, seven midwives, seven obstetricians, and nine non-pregnant women were included in this study through a purposeful sampling in health clinics of Tonekabon in the North of Iran. Semi-structured interviews and participant observations were used for data collection. Study rigor was confirmed through prolonged engagement, member check, expert debriefing, and thick description of the data.
The Indian “girl” psychology: A perspective
Hinduism , major world religion originating on the Indian subcontinent and comprising several and varied systems of philosophy , belief, and ritual. Although the name Hinduism is relatively new, having been coined by British writers in the first decades of the 19th century, it refers to a rich cumulative tradition of texts and practices, some of which date to the 2nd millennium bce or possibly earlier. If the Indus valley civilization 3rd—2nd millennium bce was the earliest source of these traditions, as some scholars hold, then Hinduism is the oldest living religion on Earth. Its many sacred texts in Sanskrit and vernacular languages served as a vehicle for spreading the religion to other parts of the world, though ritual and the visual and performing arts also played a significant role in its transmission. From about the 4th century ce , Hinduism had a dominant presence in Southeast Asia , one that would last for more than 1, years. Despite its global presence, however, it is best understood through its many distinctive regional manifestations. The term Hinduism became familiar as a designator of religious ideas and practices distinctive to India with the publication of books such as Hinduism by Sir Monier Monier-Williams, the notable Oxford scholar and author of an influential Sanskrit dictionary.
India has one of the fastest growing youth populations in the world. Girls below 19 years of age comprise one-quarter of India's rapidly growing population. Gender seems to be one of the most dominant variables that influence human development from conception to death, particularly in Indian society. Apart from class, race, age, religion, and ethnicity, gender is another vital dimension of social stratification, putting the female at a level of disadvantage; though the scenario is changing at least in urban habitat. The Government of India has taken several legislative measures relating to issues from female foeticide, practice of child marriage, widow re-marriage to women's right to property etc. The twenty-first century witnessed huge changes in the Indian way of life under the influence of modernization, westernization, industrialization, technical advancement, and population mobility across the globe. In spite of India's reputation for respecting women, to an extent to treating woman as a goddess, history tells us that women were ill-treated or neglected in various spheres of life across religions, regions, and communities.
In gender studies , hegemonic masculinity is part of R. Connell 's gender order theory , which recognizes multiple masculinities that vary across time, culture and the individual. Hegemonic masculinity is defined as a practice that legitimizes men's dominant position in society and justifies the subordination of the common male population and women, and other marginalized ways of being a man. As a sociological concept, the nature of hegemonic masculinity derives from the theory of cultural hegemony , by Marxist theorist Antonio Gramsci , which analyses the power relations among the social classes of a society. Hence, in the term hegemonic masculinity , the adjective hegemonic refers to the cultural dynamics by means of which a social group claims, and sustains, a leading and dominant position in a social hierarchy; nonetheless, hegemonic masculinity embodies a form of social organization that has been sociologically challenged and changed. The conceptual beginnings of hegemonic masculinity represented the culturally idealized form of manhood that was socially and hierarchically exclusive and concerned with bread-winning; that was anxiety-provoking and differentiated internally and hierarchically ; that was brutal and violent, pseudo-natural and tough, psychologically contradictory, and thus crisis-prone; economically rich and socially sustained.
There is not a single country in the world today whose top political position is held by a woman. Although, during the last decade, women have entered fields previously barred to them, men still monopolize the key positions in government, industry and military institutions. The questions remain: Are there innate biological harriers that prevent women trom attaining equal power? Or, is there something built into the human male that makes it more natural for him to command females than for females to command him? Feminists actually tend to underestimate male supremacism. They are afraid, for one thing, that, if it has been in continuous existence throughout virtually the entire globe from the earliest times to the present, then perhaps it really is natural for men to dominate women.