Fluid catalytic cracking technology and operations pdf

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fluid catalytic cracking technology and operations pdf

Refineries vary by complexity; more complex refineries have more secondary conversion capability, meaning they can produce different types of petroleum products. Fluid catalytic cracking FCC , a type of secondary unit operation, is primarily used in producing additional gasoline in the refining process. Unlike atmospheric distillation and vacuum distillation , which are physical separation processes, fluid catalytic cracking is a chemical process that uses a catalyst to create new, smaller molecules from larger molecules to make gasoline and distillate fuels. The catalyst is a solid sand-like material that is made fluid by the hot vapor and liquid fed into the FCC much as water makes sand into quicksand. Because the catalyst is fluid, it can circulate around the FCC, moving between reactor and regenerator vessels see photo. The FCC uses the catalyst and heat to break apart the large molecules of gas oil into the smaller molecules that make up gasoline, distillate, and other higher-value products like butane and propane. After the gas oil is cracked through contact with the catalyst, the resulting effluent is processed in fractionators, which separate the effluent based on various boiling points into several intermediate products, including butane and lighter hydrocarbons, gasoline, light gas oil, heavy gas oil, and clarified slurry oil.
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Fluidized Bed Catalytic Cracking or fluid Catalytic Cracking

Fluid Catalytic Cracking Technology and Operation Joseph W. Wilson. This desk reference for engineers provides an in-depth view of FCC process, design and.

Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) in Petroleum Refining

Email: ln. Fluid catalytic cracking FCC is one of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of research. These trends include ways to make it possible to process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After providing some general background of the FCC process, including a short history as well as details on the process, reactor design, chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by a the addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, b constructing hierarchical pores systems and c the introduction of new zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing FCC catalysts at the single particle level.

Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) is an established conversion of FCC technology to refinery operations. Our success is due to advances in FCC technology.
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1. Introduction

Fluid catalytic cracking FCC is one of the most important conversion processes used in petroleum refineries. It is widely used to convert the high-boiling, high-molecular weight hydrocarbon fractions of petroleum crude oils into more valuable gasoline , olefinic gases, and other products. It also produces byproduct gases that have more carbon-carbon double bonds i. This portion of crude oil is often referred to as heavy gas oil or vacuum gas oil HVGO. In the FCC process, the feedstock is heated to a high temperature and moderate pressure, and brought into contact with a hot, powdered catalyst. The catalyst breaks the long-chain molecules of the high-boiling hydrocarbon liquids into much shorter molecules, which are collected as a vapor. Oil refineries use fluid catalytic cracking to correct the imbalance between the market demand for gasoline and the excess of heavy, high boiling range products resulting from the distillation of crude oil.

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Handbook of Petroleum Processing pp Cite as. The catalytic cracking process, commercialized in , has undergone numerous changes. It is the most important refinery process in that it converts the heavy portion of the crude barrel into transportation fuels. The main changes in catalysts, equipment and operations are covered along with the versatility of the process to handle a wide variety of feeds and produce the desired products. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Reference work entry First Online: 16 July

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  2. PDF | The fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) technology is one of the pillars of on cracking catalyst during FCC process, including metals, sulfur.

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