[PDF] 2 THE ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE EAR AND HEARING - Semantic ScholarNCBI Bookshelf. The human ear is the organ of hearing and equilibrium. It detects and analyzes sound by the mechanism of transduction, which is the process of converting sound waves into electrochemical impulses. Audition cannot take place adequately if the anatomy is abnormal. This article will discuss the mechanisms implied in the conduction of sound waves into the ear, and its integration and transmission from the middle ear and inner ear to the brain. The human ear is a rudimentary shell-like structure that lies on the lateral aspect of the head.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE EAR.pdf
This review aims to outline which animal models are viable for preclinical hearing research, considering their anatomical and physiological characteristics, and their advantages and disadvantages of use. PubMed, Scielo, and Portal Periodicos Capes were consulted, using descriptors concerning hearing, hearing tests and animal species, individually and crossed with each other. Despite the existence of alternative models, mammals are still widely used in research. It has been found that rats, mice and guinea pigs are frequently used, and, in addition to these, sheep, rabbits and chinchillas. The methods for auditory evaluation mainly comprise distortion product otoacoustic emissions, brainstem auditory evoked potential and histological evaluation, especially in rodents.
Click Image to Enlarge. External auditory canal or tube. This is the tube that connects the outer ear to the inside or middle ear. Tympanic membrane eardrum. The tympanic membrane divides the external ear from the middle ear. Three small bones that are connected and transmit the sound waves to the inner ear.
The external and middle ears are concerned primarily with the transmission of sound. The internal ear functions both as the organ of hearing and as the part of the balance system of the body. The Auricle The auricle has lobule, tragus, antitragus, helix, antihelix, shapha, fossa triangularis, cavum conchae Fig 1. The auricle has two surfaces, lateral and medial. The underlying skeleton of the auricle consists of a plate of yellow elastic cartilage, except for lobule which is composed only of fat and fibro-areolar tissue.
How do you hear?
Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics pp Cite as. The human ear consists of the outer ear pinna or concha, outer ear canal, tympanic membrane , the middle ear middle ear cavity with the three ossicles malleus, incus and stapes and the inner ear cochlea which is connected to the three semicircular canals by the vestibule, which provides the sense of balance. The cochlea is connected to the brain stem via the eighth brain nerve, i. Subsequently, the acoustical information is processed by the brain at various levels of the auditory system. An overview about the anatomy of the auditory system is provided by Figure 1.