Ego, drives, and the dynamics of internal objectsPsychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques  related to the study of the unconscious mind ,  which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders. The discipline was established in the early s by Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud and stemmed partly from the clinical work of Josef Breuer and others. Psychoanalysis is a controversial discipline and its validity as a science is contested. Nonetheless, it remains a strong influence within psychiatry , more so in some quarters than others. During psychoanalytic sessions, which typically last 50 minutes and ideally take place 4—5 times a week,  the patient the "analysand" may lie on a couch, with the analyst often sitting just behind and out of sight.
Ego Psychology: Anna Freud, H. Hartmann (PSY)
Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy. The single most common referral problem in middle childhood and adolescence is academic underachievement and learning failure. An appreciation of the developmental processes by which the undifferentiated, unstructured, self-less and objectless newborn becomes a more fully developed, self-sufficient individual, capable of adaptive functioning and formal academic learning is encompassed in contemporary psychoanalytic conceptions of the separation-individuation process. This theory provides an organizing, theoretical base for diagnosis and treatment of learning disorders. Based on these conceptions, we discuss therapeutic techniques which are appropriate to the level of developmental arrest at each of the phases of the separation-individuation process. Unable to display preview.
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Psychoanalytic Association has published the only English translation of. Heinz Hartmann's classic essay on Ego Psychology and the Problem of. Adaptation.
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This paper addresses the relationship between the ego, id, and internal objects. While ego psychology views the ego as autonomous of the drives, a less well-known alternative position views the ego as constituted by the drives.
By Heinz Hartmann, translated by David Rapaport. Monograph Series No. International Universities Press, Inc. This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables. This book is an English translation of material presented in before the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society and then published in German in in a psychoanalytic periodical.
International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, General: Heinz Hartmann. Adaptation to reality —which includes the mastery of it—proceeds to a large extent from the ego and in particular from that part of the ego which is free from conflict ; and it is directed by the organized structure of ego-functions such as intelligence, perception , etc. Phantasy and play also facilitate adaptation , and so do the affects and certain other supposedly unrealistic actions like flight or denial of truth. In fact, recognition of reality is not the same as adaptation to it.