The Rise and Fall of the British Empire | SpringerLinkThe past of the British Raj refers to the period of British rule on the Indian subcontinent between and The system of governance was instituted in when the rule of the East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria who in was proclaimed Empress of India. It lasted until , when the British provinces of India were partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan , leaving the princely states to choose between them. The two new dominions later became the Republic of India and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan the eastern half of which, still later, became the People's Republic of Bangladesh. The province of Burma in the eastern region of the Indian Empire had been made a separate colony in and became independent in
Imperialism and the Rise and Decline of the British Economy, 1688-1989
America in the Shadow of Empires pp Cite as. Neither parliament nor monarch carries those titles today. Indeed, it would be an embarrassment if either of them did, for the British Empire is now gone and the idea of empire is widely discredited, not simply in countries once subject to British rule, but also in mainland Britain. Yet it was not always so. Over the previous six centuries, the English monarchy and its London-based parliament had made more than one attempt to create an empire; had won and lost territory by its own efforts; and had, on occasion, acquired elements of empire without making any conscious effort at all. So if there was ever an empire that looked both as extensive and as accidentally created as the contemporary American one might turn out to be, it was the British Empire.
H istorians seldom consider the metanarratives within which academic articles, monographs, models and analyses must eventually become embedded, if they are to inform public debate in modern societies. After prolonged discussion, and at the very end of the twentieth century, the British seem to be on their way to recovering a cultural consciousness and reconstructing an economic system reconnected to active participation in intra-European trade, capital movements and labour markets.
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For almost 30 years David Edgerton has produced a series of well-researched and ground-breaking revisionist accounts of this country's recent past, which have exposed the inadequacies and weaknesses of 'declinism' as an explanation of Britain's changing domestic and international experience since In studies such as England and the Aeroplane and and Warfare State: Britain, he has convincingly shown how and why the nation remained a major power with its own formidable military-industrial complex for much of the last century. The Rise and Fall of the British Nation takes up these arguments but goes beyond them, reaching out to social and cultural as well as military, political, economic and technological history.
The historiography of the British Empire refers to the studies, sources, critical methods and interpretations used by scholars to develop a history of Britain's empire. Historians and their ideas are the focus here; specific lands and historical dates and episodes are covered in the article on the British Empire. Scholars have long studied the Empire, looking at the causes for its formation, its relations to the French and other empires, and the kinds of people who became imperialists or anti-imperialists, together with their mindsets. The history of the breakdown of the Empire has attracted scholars of the histories of the United States which broke away in , India independent in , and the African colonies independent in the s. John Darwin identifies four imperial goals: colonizing, civilizing, converting, and commerce. Historians have approached imperial history from numerous angles over the last century. Recent debates have considered the relationship between the "metropole" Great Britain itself, especially London , and the colonial peripheries.