Summary of approaches and methods in language teachingAccording to academic research, linguists have demonstrated that there is not one single best method for everyone in all contexts, and that no one teaching method is inherently superior to the others. Also, it is not always possible — or appropriate — to apply the same methodology to all learners, who have different objectives, environments and learning needs. Methods of teaching English have developed rapidly, especially in the previous 40 years. As a language learner, training manager, or teacher, it is important to understand the various methods and techniques so that you are able to navigate the market, make educated choices, and boost your enjoyment of learning a language. Each teaching method is based on a particular vision of understanding the language or the learning process, often using specific techniques and materials used in a set sequence. The main methodologies are listed below in the chronological order of their development:.
Summary of Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching - Richards & Rodgers
Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers Proposed to fulfill the Comprehensive Assignment. In the sixteenth century, French, Italian, and English gained in importance as a result of political changes in Europe, and Latin gradually became displaced as a language of spoken and written communication. The study of classical Latin the Latin in which the classical works of Virgil, Ovid, and Cicero were written and an analysis of its grammar and rhetoric became the model for foreign language study from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries. Toward the mid-nineteenth century several factors contributed to a questioning and rejection of the Grammar-Translation Method. Linguists too became interested in the controversies that emerged about the best way to teach foreign languages, and ideas were fiercely discussed and defended in books, articles, and pamphlets. Other reformers toward the end of the century likewise turned their attention to naturalistic principles of language learning, and for this reason they are sometimes referred to as advocates of a "natural" method.
Listed below are brief summaries of some of the more popular second language teaching methods of the last half century. In this method the teaching is done entirely in the target language. The learner is not allowed to use his or her mother tongue. Grammar rules are avoided and there is emphasis on good pronunciation. Learning is largely by translation to and from the target language.